Postmodern literature such as Molloy, Malone dies, the unnamable, creates a new postmodern genre for us. This looks at characters that lives come together but they realise they are the fictional beliefs of someone else anyway. This can be seen as postmodern through the virtual reality in which the characters live in in which they believe is real.




Jean-Francois Lyotard postmodern condition

Lyotard argued that the postmodern world introduced such things as artificial intelligence and machine translation in which caused a shift of linguistic and a symbolic production as central elements on the new pre-industrial economy. He wrote the Postmodern condition as a report on the influence of computer technology but had a rather limited knowledge of this subject himself.
Lyotard quoted; 

Simplifying to the extreme, I define postmodern as incredulity toward meta narratives. This incredulity is undoubtedly a product of progress in the sciences: but that progress in turn presupposes it. To the obsolescence of the meta narrative apparatus of legitimation corresponds, most notably, the crisis of metaphysical philosophy and of the university institution which in the past relied on it. The narrative function is losing its functions, its great hero, its great dangers, its great voyages, its great goal. It is being dispersed in clouds of narrative language elements–narrative, but also denotative, prescriptive, descriptive, and so on […] Where, after the meta narratives, can legitimacy reside? – Jean-Francois Lyotard

[The Postmodern condition]

Zygmunt Bauman, postmodernism and consumerism

Bauman was a Polish Sociologist that looked at postmodernism and consumerism but looked more in depth at the liquid and solid modernity within postmodernism. Bauman argued that there was a shift in the mid 20th century which altered the society of producers to consumers, and the idea of security was given up so that society as a whole could enjoy freedom and consumerism. This was known as the shift from modernity to post-modernity. Bauman used metaphors such as ‘Liquid’ and ‘Solid’ modernity, liquid modernity which is the present condition of the world and solid modernity being the condition that preceded it. Bauman’s other work which he is more famous for is his work on modernity and its link to the holocaust.

Film and the postmodern world

Films such as Star Wars is a postmodern set of films, firstly the films sequence is postmodern itself by starting with star wars 4, then when looking deeper within the films themselves it is suggested  that postmodernism is not stable,  that nothing is fixed and nothing has an absolute truth to it.

star wars certain point of view clip
The clip above illustrates the point of postmodernism that there is no exact truth just points of view.
films such as the matrix, the butterfly effect all take on a postmodern view that certain factors are contradicting and can be ironic.

Music in the postmodern world

Postmodern music is simply the era of music in the postmodern world, music such as the bohemian rhapsody can be highly seen as post modern, where as Beethoven’s music is seen as music from the modernist era. Queens Bohemian Rhapsody hits the 14 criteria of the postmodernist musical attitude created by Jonathan Kramer, for example it hits the criteria that it is ironic, it embraces contradictions and  challenges barriers of high and low styles.

Queen Bohemian Rhapsody

Postmodern art is a term we use to explain the movement with art from modernism. It is argued that postmodern art is a huge contradiction to mordernism, the main term we use to do with postmodern art is bricolage, this is the visual arts and literature which can refer to the construction or creation of a work from a diverse range of things which happen to be available. Art work such as Pop Art is considered to be postmodern art with artists such as Andy Warhol, Claus Oldenburg and Roy lichenstein. The term Pop Art was created to describe paintings that celebrated consumerism.


Literature in the postmodern world

second life trailer

second life article

There are now postmodern games such as second life in which using virtual gaming to replace reality by creating yourself as someone you want to be and not who you actually are. The idea of computer technology is postmodern in itself, but to use it to create a hyperreality, games such as this second life can become globalised as so many people use it as a virtual reality.


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